Overture

Syncopation, includes variety rhythm which interrupted the regular rhythm and emphasize on weakness beats. This is audio is from Edouard Du Puy's Ouverture. The upper strings apart; contrast to lower strings, use syncopation to make music more interesting. This is an common technique on galant music. 

Giuliano Carella (conductor), Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi Di Trieste Orchestra

An overture is an instrumental work played before the beginning of a dramatic work. It was used to prepare the audience for the rest of the show and often used themes from later in the piece. An Italian Overture is an introduction to an opera or vocal work and has three simple sections of fast-slow-fast. Popular overtures in the eighteenth century would often be played outside of their operatic contexts in public concerts. This recording is from the beginning of a popular overture in the eighteenth from Paisiello’s overture to Il barbiere di Siviglia. The example uses flutes, oboes, bassoons, violins, viola, cello, and double bass.

 
Giuliano Carella (conductor), Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi Di Trieste Orchestra

Fortepiano is a dynamic marking used to denote an accent or stress in the music by suddenly being loud (forte) and then immediately soft (piano). The marking is written as “fp” directly underneath the note where it occurs. This marking appeared frequently in the eighteenth century as a more flexible system of dynamics was forming. In this example from Paisiello’s overture to Il barbiere di Siviglia, the fortepiano is heard every few seconds from the whole orchestra. This concept should not to be confused with the fortepiano, a keyboard instrument from the eighteenth century.

 
Giuliano Carella (conductor), Teatro Lirico Giuseppe Verdi Di Trieste Orchestra

Ostinato is a short phrase, chord or melody that repeats continuously through a section or whole piece of music. It is generally a simple and easy to remember pattern. The name comes from the Italian word for “obstinate” because of its repetitious nature. It has been a popular musical element for centuries. In the example from Paisiello’s overture to Il barbiere di Siviglia, listen to the lower sounding string instruments for two different ostinato patterns. The first pattern is a single repeating note and the second is a melodic pattern.

Orchestra Della Toscana; Donato Renzetti (Conductor)

An anacrusis is an introductory note or group of notes that is played before the downbeat of a phrase or section of music. The first note heard in the provided recording is the anacrusis.

Orchestra Della Toscana; Donato Renzetti (Conductor)

A sudden dynamic change occurs in music when the volume drastically changes from soft to loud, or from loud to soft, without any gradation between the two. Eighteenth century composers often employed this effect in their music. 

Orchestra Della Toscana; Donato Renzetti (Conductor)

When the articulation “staccato” is applied to a musical note, the note in question is shortened and detached. A staccato is indicated by a small dot placed above or below a note. In the provided recording, staccatos are first heard in the horns and then the flutes. While this form of articulation is not a product of the eighteenth century, it was used by composers of the period as a means of adding character to a piece or advancing a musical line.